Evaluating The Impact of Gender Norms on Women's Participation in Terrorist Organizations
Keywords:Sex, Gender, Women, Terrorism, Terrorist Organization
Studies on terrorism and political violence often take into account a multitude of political, socio-economic, ideological, cultural and religious factors that can shape an individual's radicalization and involvement in terrorism. However, gender differences in the participation of men and women in terrorist organizations should be analyzed not only on the basis of biological characteristics, but also in the context of gender. Despite the evolving and diversifying roles of men and women, gender codifications shape understandings of how radicalization and participation in terrorist activities can differ. This is because the reasons and degree of participation in terrorist organizations may also differ according to experiences based on gender norms. Therefore, this study first aims to address how the concept of gender is defined in the literature. Subsequently, the reasons for how and in what ways gender norms cause marginalization in women will be investigated. The reasons why women use violence as a form of communication will be revealed. The diversity of social lives and cultures multiplies the differences between contexts and women who resort to political violence. Just as the conditions under which terrorist organizations emerge are not the same, the factors that lead women to justify violence may be different from each other. In this context, in the last part of the study, the gender factors that lead to the emergence of terrorism, a sub-type of political violence, and women's involvement in political violence movements are discussed in a comparative manner through case studies.
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