Women's Childbearing Motivation in the West Mediterranean Region of Turkey
Keywords:Childbearing, Childbearing motivation, Couple relationships, Fertility, Woman
The most crucial factor influencing population growth is fertility. The fertility rate is associated with individuals' desire in society to have children. In recent years, the fertility rate in Turkey has been gradually declining, and an increasing number of women are opting to remain childless. Alongside biological, social, and economic variables, motivations for childbearing also play a significant role in the decrease of the fertility rate. Based on this premise, the current study aimed to identify the effective fertility motivations that contribute to the diminishing desire of Turkish women to have children. The research included a total of 255 women within the age group of 25 to 29, representing the segment with the highest fertility rate in Turkey. The "Childbearing Motivation Scale" was utilized to gather data. The analysis involved examining the arithmetic mean and standard deviation values of various motivations for childbearing through the use of the t-test for Independent groups. As a result, it was found that positive motivations for childbearing women were mainly associated with couple relationships from socio-economic perspectives, whereas negative motivations were predominantly related to socio-ecological concerns. Additionally, the study revealed that the level of education significantly affected positive motivations for childbearing.
Abbasi-Shavazi, M. J., McDonald, P., & Hosseini-Chavoshi, M. (2009). National and provincial level fertility trends in Iran, 1972–2006. The Fertility Transition in Iran: Revolution and Reproduction, p.43-65. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-3198-3_3
Avison, M., & Furnham, A. (2015). Personality and voluntary childlessness. Journal of Population Research, 32(1), 45-67. DOI 10.1007/s12546-014-9140-6
Akça, H., & Ela, M. (2012). Analysis of the relationship between education, fertility and unemployment in Turkey [Türkiye'de eğitim, doğurganlık ve işsizlik ilişkisinin analizi.]. Journal of Finance, 163, 223-242.
Alkema, L., Raftery, A. E., Gerland, P., Clark, S. J., Pelletier, F., Buettner, T., & Heilig, G. K. (2011). Probabilistic projections of the total fertility rate for all countries. Demography, 48(3), 815-839. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-011-0040-5
Bachrach, C. A., & Morgan, S. P. (2013). A cognitive–social model of fertility intentions. Population and Development Review, 39, 459-485. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2013.00612.x
Başkaya, Z., & Özkılıç, F. (2017). Changes in fertility in Turkey (1980-2013). Journal of International Social Research, 10 (54). http://dx.doi.org/10.17719/jisr.20175434605
Bernardi, L., & Klärner, A. (2014). Social networks and fertility. Demographic research, 30, 641-670. Doi: 10.4054/DemRes.2014.30.22
Bühler, C., & Philipov, D. (2005). Social capital related to fertility: Theoretical foundations and empirical evidence from Bulgaria. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 3; 53–81. Austrian Academy of Sciences Press. https://doi .org/10.1553/populationyearbook2005s53
Gemicioğlu, S., Şahin, H., & Er, E. (2019). Analysis of fertility in Turkey: The importance of future fertility preferences. Socioeconomics, 27(41), 223-234. Doi: 10.17233/sosyoekonomi.2019.03.11
George, D. ve Mallery, P. 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics 23 step by step: A simple guide and reference. New York, NY: Routledge.
Guedes, M., Pereira, M., Pires, R., Carvalho, P., & Canavarro, M. C. (2015). Childbearing motivations scale: construction of a new measure and its preliminary psychometric properties. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(1), 180-194. Doi 10.1007/s10826-013-9824-0
Hammarberg, K., Collins, V., Holden, C., Young, K., & McLachlan, R. (2017). Men's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours relating to fertility. Human Reproduction Update, 23(4), 458-480. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmx005
Hüseyinzade Şimşek, A. (2017). Turkish adaptation, validity and reliability study of the scale of motivation to have children. Journal of Social Sciences 13, 395-408.
Karaman, E. D. & Doğan, N. (2018). Upon the motherhood role: woman’s being tyrannized through her “motherhood” identity [Annelik rolü üzerine: kadının “annelik” kimliği üzerinden tahakküm altına alınması.] Gümüşhane University e-Journal Faculty of Communication. 6(2), 1475-1496.
Kargı, N. (1999), Socio-economics determinants of fertility in Tturkey: a provincial approach in 1990 (Master Thesis, Middel East Tecnical University, Social Sciences Institute, Ankara, Turkey.
Kalwij, A. S. (2000). The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children. Journal of Population Economics, 13(2), 221-239. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001480050135.
Kavas, S., & De Jong, J. (2020). Exploring the mechanisms through which social ties affect fertility decisions in Turkey. Journal of Marriage and Family, 82(4), 1250-1269.https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12668
Keim, S., Klärner, A., & Bernardi, L. (2009). Qualifying social influence on fertility intentions: Composition, structure and meaning of fertility-relevant social networks in Western Germany. Current Sociology, 57(6), 888-907. https://doi.org/10.1177/0011392109342226
Keshavarz, H., Bahramian, M., Mohajerani, A. A., & Hossein-Pour, K. (2012). Factors affecting differences in fertility behavior of Resident and migrating tribes of Samirom. Health System Research, 8(3), 456-465.
Khadivzadeh, T., Latifnejad, R., & Bahrami, M. (2014). The influence of mass media on couple s fertility intention, a qualitative explanatory approach. In National Conference of Women Health (Vol. 21).
Lam, D., & Duryea, S. (1999). Effects of schooling on fertility, labor supply, and investments in children, with evidence from Brazil. Journal of Human Resources, 160-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/146306
Lutz, W., Skirbekk, V., & Testa, M. R. (2006). The low-fertility trap hypothesis: Forces that may lead to further postponement and fewer births in Europe. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 167-192. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23025482
Martin, S. P. (2000). Diverging fertility among US women who delay childbearing past age 30. Demography, 37(4), 523-533. https://doi.org/10.1353/dem.2000.0007
Miettinen, A., Basten, S., & Rotkirch, A. (2011). Gender equality and fertility intentions revisited: Evidence from Finland. Demographic Research, 24, 469-496. Doi: 10.4054/DemRes.2011.24.20
Miller, W. B. (1995). Childbearing motivations and its measurement. Journal of Biosocial Science, 27(4), 473–487. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932000023087
Miller, W. B. (2011). Differences between fertility desires and intentions: Implications for theory, research and policy. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 9, 75-98. Austrian Academy of Sciences Press
Miller, W. B. (2015, April). Childbearing motivation: Some puzzles, some solutions, and some new questions. In 43rd Annual Psychosocial Workshop, San Diego, CA.
Miller, S. L., & Maner, J. K. (2011). Ovulation as a male mating prime: Subtle signs of women's fertility influence men's mating cognition and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(2), 295–308. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020930
Miller, W. B. (2009). The reasons people give for having children. In W. B. Miller (Ed.), Why we have children: Building an unified theory of the reproductive mind (pp. 1–19). Aptos, CA: Transnational Family Research Institute.
Mills, M., Rindfuss, R. R., McDonald, P., & Te Velde, E. (2011). Why do people postpone parenthood? Reasons and social policy incentives. Human reproduction update, 17(6), 848-860. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmr026
Mynarska, M., & Rytel, J. (2020). Fertility desires of childless poles: Which childbearing motives matter for men and women? Journal of Family Issues, 41(1), 7-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X19868257
Pasta, D. J., & Miller, W. B. (2000). A heritability study of childbearing motivation. In Genetic influences on human fertility and sexuality (pp. 107-120). Springer, Boston, MA.
Pezeshki, M. Z., Zeighami, B., & Miller, W. B. (2005). Measuring the childbearing motivation of couples referred to the Shiraz Health Center for premarital examinations. Journal of Biosocial Science, 37(1), 37-53. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021932003006485
Pedro, J., Brandão, T., Schmidt, L., Costa, M. E., & Martins, M. V. (2018). What do people know about fertility? A systematic review on fertility awareness and its associated factors. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 123(2), 71-81. https://doi.org/10.1080/03009734.2018.1480186
Peker, M. (2016). Population Transformation in Turkey [Türkiye’de nüfusal dönüşüm]. Journal of Sociology, (34), 133-196.
Rindfuss, R. R., Bumpass, L., & St. John, C. (1980). Education and fertility: Implications for the roles women occupy. American Sociological Review, 431-447. https://doi.org/10.2307/2095176
Roy, S., & Hossain, S. M. I. (2017). Fertility differential of women in Bangladesh demographic and health survey 2014. Fertility Research and Practice, 3(1),1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40738-017-0043-z
Selim, S., & Üçdoğruk, Ş. (2005). Fertility in Turkey: quality-quantity approach [Türkiye’de doğurganlık: Kalite miktar yaklaşım]. Journal of Demographics, 27(1), 49-66.
Shoaee, F., Hafezipour, F., Khoshnejad Afkham, E., Mameneh, M., Mohammadabadi, L., Shafiei Rad, B., & Babakhanian, M. (2020). Psychometric Characteristics of Childbearing Motivation Questionnaire: A Review. International Journal of Pediatrics, 8(1), 10705-10709. Doi: 10.22038/IJP.2020.45492.3728
Schmidt, L., Sobotka, T., Bentzen, J. G. & Nyboe Andersen, A. (2012). Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood. Human Reproduction Update, 18(1), 29-43. https://doi.org/10.1093/humupd/dmr040
Tanturri, M. L., & Mencarini, L. (2008). Childless or childfree? Paths to voluntary childlessness in Italy. Population and development review, 34(1), 51-77.
Te Velde, E., Habbema, D., Leridon, H., & Eijkemans, M. (2012). The effect of postponement of first motherhood on permanent involuntary childlessness and total fertility rate in six European countries since the 1970s. Human Reproduction, 27(4), 1179-1183. https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/der455
Turkish Statistical Institute [TSI] (2018). Birth Statistics, 2020https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Kategori/GetKategori?p=nufus-ve-demografi-109&dil=1
Turkish Statistical Institute [TSI] (2020). Birth Statistics, 2020. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Dogum-Istatistikleri-2020-37229Turkish Statistical Institute [TSI] (2021). Women in Statistics https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Women-in-Statistics-2021-45635Ünalan, T. (2005). Changing family structure in Turkey, 1968–1998. In Population, resources and development (pp. 181-201). Springer, Dordrecht. DOI: 10.1007/1-4020-3464-4_10
Van de Kaa, D. J. (1987). Europe's second demographic transition. Population Bulletin, 42(1), 1-59.
Varas, G. V. V., & Borsa, J. C. (2021). Predictor variables of childbearing motivations in Brazilian women and men. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto), 31:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-4327e3112
Warr, M. (1992). Altruistic fear of victimization in households. Social Science Quarterly, 73, 723-736.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 WORLD WOMEN STUDIES JOURNAL
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.